Resources

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Journal article Coating formulation change leads to inferior performance of long-lasting insecticidal nets in Papua New Guinea
Journal article Estimating the Distribution of Japanese Encephalitis Vectors in Australia Using Ecological Niche Modelling
Journal article Stratification of malaria incidence in Papua New Guinea (2011–2019): Contribution towards a sub-national control policy
Journal article Molecular detection and characterisation of the first Japanese encephalitis virus belonging to genotype IV acquired in Australia
Journal article Retrospective seroepidemiological study of chikungunya infection in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific region
Journal article Genetic Diversity and Phylogeny of Aedes aegypti, the Main Arbovirus Vector in the Pacific
Journal article Strengthening Capacity in Disaster Waste Management in Vanuatu
Journal article Japanese Encephalitis Virus Emergence in Australia: Public Health Importance and Implications for Future Surveillance
Journal article Japanese Encephalitis Virus: The Emergence of Genotype IV in Australia and Its Potential Endemicity
Journal article Japanese Encephalitis Emergence in Australia: The Potential Population at Risk
Journal article Perspective on the Use of Innovative Surveillance Strategies Implemented for COVID-19 to Prevent Mosquito-Borne Disease Emergence in French Polynesia
Journal article Insecticide resistance in malaria and arbovirus vectors in Papua New Guinea, 2017–2022
Journal article Spatially Explicit Environmental Factors Associated with Lymphatic Filariasis Infection in American Samoa
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Standard Operating Procedure for maintaining Anopheles farauti s.s. colony mosquitoes
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Standard Operating Procedure for maintaining Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus colony mosquitoes
Journal article Evaluating Molecular Xenomonitoring as a Tool for Lymphatic Filariasis Surveillance in Samoa, 2018–2019
Journal article Modelling lymphatic filariasis elimination in American Samoa: GEOFIL predicts need for new targets and six rounds of mass drug administration
Journal article Lymphatic filariasis in 2016 in American Samoa: Identifying clustering and hotspots using non-spatial and three spatial analytical methods
Journal article Reconstructing long-term dengue virus immunity in French Polynesia.
Journal article Assessment of fitness and vector competence of a New Caledonia wMel Aedes aegypti strain before field-release
Journal article Vector composition, abundance, biting patterns and malaria transmission intensity in Madang, Papua New Guinea: assessment after 7 years of an LLIN-based malaria control programme
Journal article Trash to Treasure: How Insect Protein and Waste Containers Can Improve the Environmental Footprint of Mosquito Egg Releases
Journal article Mathematical modelling of the mosquito Aedes polynesiensis in a heterogeneous environment
Journal article Pictorial keys for the identification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) associated with Dengue Virus Transmission
Journal article The mosquitoes of Polynesia with a pictorial key to some species associated with filariasis and/or dengue fever
Journal article The extensive networks of frequent population mobility in the Samoan Islands and their implications for infectious disease transmission
Journal article Lymphatic filariasis epidemiology in Samoa in 2018: Geographic clustering and higher antigen prevalence in older age groups
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Standard Operating Procedure for BG-Sentinel Assembly and Deployment
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Standard Operating Procedure for conducting larval and pupal surveys for Anopheles
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Standard Operating Procedure for performing Human Landing Catch (HLC)
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Standard Operating Procedure for conducting larval and pupal surveys for Aedes
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Standard Operating Procedure for assembly and deployment of ovitraps
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Standard Operating Procedures for collecting resting mosquitoes with the Prokopack aspirator
Implementation Guidance Equipment for vector control. Specification guidelines. 2nd edition
Journal article Seroprevalence of dengue, Zika, chikungunya and Ross River viruses across the Solomon Islands
Journal article Methodological Diversity in Citizen Science Mosquito Surveillance: A Scoping Review
Journal article Arboviral Disease Outbreaks in the Pacific Islands Countries and Areas, 2014 to 2020: A Systematic Literature and Document Review
Journal article Human Behavior, Livelihood, and Malaria Transmission in Two Sites of Papua New Guinea
Journal article Insecticide resistance status of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes in Papua New Guinea
Journal article Comparison of Different Mosquito Traps for Zoonotic Arbovirus Vectors in Papua New Guinea
Journal article Arbovirus Detection in Vectors
Journal article Optimization of the feeding rate of Anopheles farauti s.s. colony mosquitoes in direct membrane feeding assays
Journal article Outcomes from international field trials with Male Aedes Sound Traps: Frequency-dependent effectiveness in capturing target species in relation to bycatch abundance
Journal article Effect of BG-Lures on the Male Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) Sound Trap Capture Rates
Journal article Spatial population genomics of a recent mosquito invasion
Journal article Coverage, determinants of use and repurposing of long-lasting insecticidal nets two years after a mass distribution in Lihir Islands, Papua New Guinea: a cross-sectional study
Journal article Investigating differences in village-level heterogeneity of malaria infection and household risk factors in Papua New Guinea
Journal article Magneto-optical diagnosis of symptomatic malaria in Papua New Guinea
Journal article Getting to zero: micro-foci of malaria in the Solomon Islands requires stratified control
Journal article Human Seroprevalence for Dengue, Ross River, and Barmah Forest viruses in Australia and the Pacific: A systematic review spanning seven decades
Journal article Climate change and diseases: A focus on dengue fever and its surveillance system in Fiji Islands
Journal article Dengue fever outbreak in Cook Island: A rising concern, efforts, challenges, and future recommendations
Journal article Addressing hard-to-reach populations for achieving malaria elimination in the Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network countries
Report World malaria report 2021
Journal article Residual Malaria Transmission in Select Countries of Asia-Pacific Region: Old Wine in a New Barrel
Journal article Report of the 2018 annual meeting of the Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network Vector Control Working Group: harnessing skills and knowledge for malaria elimination across the Asia Pacific.
Journal article Eliminating again, for the last time: A case study of donor support for malaria in Solomon Islands
Implementation Guidance Continuous Long-lasting Insecticidal Net Distributions A Guide to Concepts and Planning
Implementation Guidance Multisectoral approach for the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases
Meeting resources List of attendees
Meeting resources Finalised agenda
Meeting resources Recording of the meeting
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Performing sweep net sampling of host-seeking mosquitoes
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) SOP for surveillance, processing and storage of mosquito vectors
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) CDC light traps
Implementation Guidance Guidelines for laboratory and field-testing of long-lasting insecticidal nets
Compendium of guidance Compendium of WHO malaria guidance - prevention, diagnosis, treatment, surveillance and elimintation
Community engagement and risk communication WHO community engagement framework for quality, people-centred and resilient health services
Community engagement and risk communication A WHO Guideline for Emergency Risk Communication (ERC) policy and practice
Community engagement and risk communication A toolkit for behavioural and social communication in outbreak response
Implementation Guidance Guidelines for laboratory and field testing of mosquito larvicides
Implementation Guidance Guidelines for testing mosquito adulticides for indoor residual spraying and treatment of mosquito nets
Implementation Guidance Preparing for certification of malaria elmination
Implementation Guidance A framework for malaria elimination
Implementation Guidance Global plan for insecticide resistance management in malaria vectors
Implementation Guidance Prevention and management of insecticide resistance in vectors of public health importance
Implementation Guidance Framework for a national plan for monitoring and management of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors
Implementation Guidance Insecticide-treated nets for malaria transmission control in areas with insecticide-resistant mosquito populations
Implementation Guidance Indoor residual spraying: An operational manual for IRS for malaria transmission, control and elimination
Implementation Guidance Larval source management - a supplementary measure for malaria vector control
Implementation Guidance Malaria surveillance, monitoring and evaluation: A reference manual
Developing national strategic plans Manual for developing national malaria strategic plans
Guidelines Guidelines for malaria
Strategies and regulations Regional action framework for malaria control and elimination in the Western Pacific (2016-2020)
Strategies and regulations Global technical strategy for malaria 2016-2030
Implementation Guidance Technical handbook for dengue surveillance, dengue outbreak prediction/detection and outbreak response
Implementation Guidance Pacific Outbreak Manual, Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network (PPHSN)
Implementation Guidance A toolkit for national dengue burden estimation
Implementation Guidance Dengue Outbreak Toolbox
Implementation Guidance Guidelines for quality control of pesticides
Implementation Guidance Guidelines on management options for empty pesticide containers
Implementation Guidance Guidelines for procuring public health pesticides
Implementation Guidance Guidelines for drinking-water quality
Implementation Guidance Managing pesticides in agriculture and public health: a compendium of FAO and WHO guidelines and other resources
Implementation Guidance Test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vector mosquitoes
Implementation Guidance Monitoring and managing insecticide resistance in Aedes mosquito population
Implementation Guidance Space spray application of insecticides for vector and public health pest control: A practitioner's guide
Implementation Guidance Vector control operations framework for Zika virus
Implementation Guidance Entomological surveillance for Aedes spp, in the context of Zika virus
Implementation Guidance Vector surveillance and control at ports, airports and ground crossings
Implementation Guidance Manual for indoor residual spraying in urban areas for Aedes aegypti control
Implementation Guidance Guidance framework for testing the sterile insect technique as a vector control tool against Aedes-borne diseases
Implementation Guidance Manual for Surveillance and Control of Aedes Vectors in the Pacific
Implementation Guidance WHO aircraft disinsection methods and procedures
Guidelines Dengue guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control
Strategies and regulations WHO Country Cooperation Strategy 2018-2022: Pacific Island Countries and Areas
Strategies and regulations International Health Regulations
Strategies and regulations Zika strategic response plan
Strategies and regulations Western Pacific regional action plan for dengue prevention and control
Strategies and regulations Global Vector Control Response
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Sweep Net Collections - Vegetation
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Pyrethrum Spray Catches
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Pot or Box Resting Site Collections
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Pit Shelter
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Human Baited Tent
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Furvela Tent Traps
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) BG-Gravid Aedes Trap Assembly and Deployment
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Barrier Screen Collections
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Animal Baited Tent
Implementation Guidance Global Strategy for Dengue Prevention and Control 2012-2020 World Health Organisation

Find out about mosquito borne diseases

Dengue

  • Dengue viruses are spread to people through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquitoes.
  • Global incidence of dengue has increased massively over the past 50yrs, with transmission spreading into new countries.
  • The Pacific Island Countries are all at risk of dengue outbreaks.
  • Dengue is caused by one of any of four related viruses: Dengue virus 1, 2, 3, and 4.
  • Dengue infection is usually asymptomatic and only about 1 in 4 infected people will get sick.
  • For people who get sick with dengue, the infection causes flu-like illness, and occasionally develops into potentially lethal complicated called severe dengue.
  • The virus may also transmitted from a mother to her unborn infant during pregnancy.
  • There is no specific treatment for dengue/severe dengue, but early detection access to proper medical care lowers fatality rates below 1%.

Transmission of dengue, chikungunya and Zika

An Aedes mosquito vector becomes infected when they ingest the dengue, chikungunya or Zika virus when taking a blood meal on an infected human.

The virus develops and multiplies in the infected mosquito and then when it takes another blood meal, it is able to pass the arbovirus to other humans.

For dengue, in particular, the transmission cycle is complicated by the fact that there are actually four different types of dengue virus. Infection with one serotype of virus provides immunity to that serotype for life, but does not provide long term immunity to other serotypes. In fact, if someone becomes infected with a different serotype this may put them at a higher risk of developing haemorrhagic dengue, a more serious from the disease.

Which mosquitoes species can transmit dengue, Zika and chikungunya in the Pacific:



Aedes aegypti



Aedes albopictus



Aedes polynesiensis

Vectors in the Pacific

The primary vector of dengue, Zika and chikungunya in the Pacific region is Aedes aegypti.

Aedes albopictus and Aedes polynesiensis are important secondary vectors.

There are also a number of other secondary vectors that are important within restricted geographic areas, or that contribute to the transmission of arboviruses once an outbreak has started.

  • Aedes cooki
  • Aedes hebrideus
  • Aedes hensilli
  • Aedes kesseli
  • Aedes marshallensis
  • Aedes pseudoscutellaris
  • Aedes rotumae
  • Aedes scutellaris
  • Aedes tongae

Prevention and control of Aedes-borne arboviruses

The main method to control or prevent the transmission of dengue virus is to combat vector mosquitoes through:

  • preventing mosquitoes from accessing egg-laying habitats by environmental management and modification;
  • disposing of solid waste properly and removing artificial man-made habitats;
  • covering, emptying, and cleaning of domestic water storage containers on a weekly basis;
  • applying appropriate insecticides to water storage outdoor containers;
  • using of personal household protection such as window screens, long-sleeved clothes, insecticide treated materials, coils and vaporizers;
  • improving community participation and mobilization for sustained vector control;
  • applying residual insecticides during outbreaks as one of the emergency vector-control measures, such as indoor residual spraying;
  • active monitoring and surveillance of vectors should be carried out to determine effectiveness of control interventions.

SOURCE:
For guidance targeted to PICs to prevent and control arbovirus infections, see the Manual on Surveillance and Control of Aedes vectors in the Pacific

Situation reports

Overview of dengue in the Pacific

In 2022, and as of 1 May, 3,930 cases of dengue (DLI) have been reported. The majority of cases have been reported from Fiji.

Epidemic and emerging disease alerts in the Pacific as of 10 May 2022

Pacific Syndromic Surveillance System Dengue Like Illness (DLI)

Number of dengue like illness (DLI) cases reported

Country W17 Year Total
American Samoa 0 0
Cook Islands 0 2
Fiji 154 3843
French Polynesia 0 0
Guam 0 0
Kiribati 0 2
Marshall Islands 0 0
Micronesia 0 11
Nauru 0 0
New Caledonia 0 11
New Zealand 0 0
Niue 0 0
Northern Mariana Islands 0 0
Palau 4 15
Papua New Guinea 0 0
Pitcairn Islands 0 0
Samoa 0 0
Solomon Islands 0 28
Tokelau 0 0
Tonga 0 0
Tuvalu 0 0
Vanuatu 4 6
Wallis & Futuna 0 12

Mosquito-borne disease outbreak news from the Region

Zika

  • Zika virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which primarily bite during the day.
  • The virus infection is usually asymptomatic, but can lead to severe complications.
  • Infection during pregnancy presents many serious hazards for mother and child (microcephaly in children).
  • The virus infection is usually asymptomatic, but can lead to severe complications.
  • Zika virus is a trigger of Guillain-Barre syndrome.
  • The virus may also transmitted from a mother to her unborn infant, through sexual contact and blood transfusions.
  • The transmission of Zika virus has been recorded from at least 20 Pacific Island Countries. The first major outbreak in the Region occurred on Yap Island in the Federated States of Micronesia in 2007. This was followed by a large outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013-14 which was associated with a rise in Guillain-Barre syndrome cases.
  • There is currently no vaccine to prevent or medicine to treat Zika virus infection.

Transmission of dengue, chikungunya and Zika

An Aedes mosquito vector becomes infected when they ingest the dengue, chikungunya or Zika virus when taking a blood meal on an infected human.

The virus develops and multiplies in the infected mosquito and then when it takes another blood meal, it is able to pass the arbovirus to other humans.

For dengue, in particular, the transmission cycle is complicated by the fact that there are actually four different types of dengue virus. Infection with one serotype of virus provides immunity to that serotype for life, but does not provide long term immunity to other serotypes. In fact, if someone becomes infected with a different serotype this may put them at a higher risk of developing haemorrhagic dengue, a more serious from the disease.

Which mosquitoes species can transmit dengue, Zika and chikungunya in the Pacific:



Aedes aegypti



Aedes albopictus



Aedes polynesiensis

Vectors in the Pacific

The primary vector of dengue, Zika and chikungunya in the Pacific region is Aedes aegypti.

Aedes albopictus and Aedes polynesiensis are important secondary vectors.

There are also a number of other secondary vectors that are important within restricted geographic areas, or that contribute to the transmission of arboviruses once an outbreak has started.

  • Aedes cooki
  • Aedes hebrideus
  • Aedes hensilli
  • Aedes kesseli
  • Aedes marshallensis
  • Aedes pseudoscutellaris
  • Aedes rotumae
  • Aedes scutellaris
  • Aedes tongae

Prevention and control of Aedes-borne arboviruses

The main method to control or prevent the transmission of dengue virus is to combat vector mosquitoes through:

  • preventing mosquitoes from accessing egg-laying habitats by environmental management and modification;
  • disposing of solid waste properly and removing artificial man-made habitats;
  • covering, emptying, and cleaning of domestic water storage containers on a weekly basis;
  • applying appropriate insecticides to water storage outdoor containers;
  • using of personal household protection such as window screens, long-sleeved clothes, insecticide treated materials, coils and vaporizers;
  • improving community participation and mobilization for sustained vector control;
  • applying residual insecticides during outbreaks as one of the emergency vector-control measures, such as indoor residual spraying;
  • active monitoring and surveillance of vectors should be carried out to determine effectiveness of control interventions.

SOURCE:
For guidance targeted to PICs to prevent and control arbovirus infections, see the Manual on Surveillance and Control of Aedes vectors in the Pacific

Situation reports

Overview of dengue in the Pacific

In 2022, and as of 1 May, 3,930 cases of dengue (DLI) have been reported. The majority of cases have been reported from Fiji.

Epidemic and emerging disease alerts in the Pacific as of 10 May 2022

Pacific Syndromic Surveillance System Dengue Like Illness (DLI)

Number of dengue like illness (DLI) cases reported

Country W17 Year Total
American Samoa 0 0
Cook Islands 0 2
Fiji 154 3843
French Polynesia 0 0
Guam 0 0
Kiribati 0 2
Marshall Islands 0 0
Micronesia 0 11
Nauru 0 0
New Caledonia 0 11
New Zealand 0 0
Niue 0 0
Northern Mariana Islands 0 0
Palau 4 15
Papua New Guinea 0 0
Pitcairn Islands 0 0
Samoa 0 0
Solomon Islands 0 28
Tokelau 0 0
Tonga 0 0
Tuvalu 0 0
Vanuatu 4 6
Wallis & Futuna 0 12

Mosquito-borne disease outbreak news from the Region

Chikungunya

  • Chikungunya is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which primarily bite during the day.
  • Chikungunya causes an acute febrile illness. The most common symptoms of infection are fever and joint pain.
  • Chikungunya is often misdiagnosed with dengue and other diseases.
  • Chikungunya virus infection seems to elicit long-lasting protective immunity.
  • The virus may also transmitted from a mother to her unborn infant, through sexual contact and blood transfusions.
  • There is currently no vaccine to prevent or medicine to treat chikungunya virus infection.
  • Chikungunya was largely absent from the Pacific Island Countries until an outbreak in New Caledonia in 2011. Chikungunya outbreaks or cases have since been reported from at least 9 Pacific Island Countries.

Transmission of dengue, chikungunya and Zika

An Aedes mosquito vector becomes infected when they ingest the dengue, chikungunya or Zika virus when taking a blood meal on an infected human.

The virus develops and multiplies in the infected mosquito and then when it takes another blood meal, it is able to pass the arbovirus to other humans.

For dengue, in particular, the transmission cycle is complicated by the fact that there are actually four different types of dengue virus. Infection with one serotype of virus provides immunity to that serotype for life, but does not provide long term immunity to other serotypes. In fact, if someone becomes infected with a different serotype this may put them at a higher risk of developing haemorrhagic dengue, a more serious from the disease.

Which mosquitoes species can transmit dengue, Zika and chikungunya in the Pacific:



Aedes aegypti



Aedes albopictus



Aedes polynesiensis

Vectors in the Pacific

The primary vector of dengue, Zika and chikungunya in the Pacific region is Aedes aegypti.

Aedes albopictus and Aedes polynesiensis are important secondary vectors.

There are also a number of other secondary vectors that are important within restricted geographic areas, or that contribute to the transmission of arboviruses once an outbreak has started.

  • Aedes cooki
  • Aedes hebrideus
  • Aedes hensilli
  • Aedes kesseli
  • Aedes marshallensis
  • Aedes pseudoscutellaris
  • Aedes rotumae
  • Aedes scutellaris
  • Aedes tongae

Prevention and control of Aedes-borne arboviruses

The main method to control or prevent the transmission of dengue virus is to combat vector mosquitoes through:

  • preventing mosquitoes from accessing egg-laying habitats by environmental management and modification;
  • disposing of solid waste properly and removing artificial man-made habitats;
  • covering, emptying, and cleaning of domestic water storage containers on a weekly basis;
  • applying appropriate insecticides to water storage outdoor containers;
  • using of personal household protection such as window screens, long-sleeved clothes, insecticide treated materials, coils and vaporizers;
  • improving community participation and mobilization for sustained vector control;
  • applying residual insecticides during outbreaks as one of the emergency vector-control measures, such as indoor residual spraying;
  • active monitoring and surveillance of vectors should be carried out to determine effectiveness of control interventions.

SOURCE:
For guidance targeted to PICs to prevent and control arbovirus infections, see the Manual on Surveillance and Control of Aedes vectors in the Pacific

Situation reports

Overview of dengue in the Pacific

In 2022, and as of 1 May, 3,930 cases of dengue (DLI) have been reported. The majority of cases have been reported from Fiji.

Epidemic and emerging disease alerts in the Pacific as of 10 May 2022

Pacific Syndromic Surveillance System Dengue Like Illness (DLI)

Number of dengue like illness (DLI) cases reported

Country W17 Year Total
American Samoa 0 0
Cook Islands 0 2
Fiji 154 3843
French Polynesia 0 0
Guam 0 0
Kiribati 0 2
Marshall Islands 0 0
Micronesia 0 11
Nauru 0 0
New Caledonia 0 11
New Zealand 0 0
Niue 0 0
Northern Mariana Islands 0 0
Palau 4 15
Papua New Guinea 0 0
Pitcairn Islands 0 0
Samoa 0 0
Solomon Islands 0 28
Tokelau 0 0
Tonga 0 0
Tuvalu 0 0
Vanuatu 4 6
Wallis & Futuna 0 12

Mosquito-borne disease outbreak news from the Region

Malaria

  • Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite. Four kinds of malaria parasites infect humans: Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae.
  • People with malaria often experience fever, chills, and flu-like illness. Left untreated, they may develop severe complications and die.
  • In the Pacific, malaria is endemic in Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu.
  • Malaria incidence has nearly doubled in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands since 2015.
  • Vanuatu is targeting country-wide elimination.
  • Children under 5 years old are the most vulnerable group.
  • Although malaria can be a deadly disease, illness and death from malaria can usually be prevented.
  • Malaria may also be transmitted from a mother to her unborn infant before or during delivery or through blood transmission.
  • Several good antimalarial drugs are available and should be taken early on.

Transmission of malaria

The transmission of human malaria involves cyclical infections of humans and mosquitoes.

Anopheles species becomes infected when taking a blood meal on an infected human.

The pathogen develops in the mosquito and then the infected mosquito can go on to transmit malaria to other humans with each blood meal it takes.

Malaria parasites develop through many different forms inside both the mosquito and human hosts.

Which mosquitoes species can transmit dengue, Zika and chikungunya in the Pacific:



Primary vectors

  • Anopheles farauti s.s
  • Anopheles koliensis s.l.
  • Anopheles punctulatus


Secondary vectors

  • Anopheles bancroftii s.l
  • Anopheles hinescorum
  • Anopheles oreios
  • Anopheles farauti 4
  • Anopheles farauti 8
  • Anopheles longirostris s.l.
  • Anopheles karwari


Oriental introductions

  • An. barbirostris
  • An. indefinitus
  • An. subpictus
  • An. vagus
  • An. litoralis
  • An. campestris

In the Southwest Pacific, Anopheles mosquitoes are naturally found in the Moluccas, the islands of New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. Over 40 species of Anopheles are found in the region, and many of these can transmit malaria.

Prevention & control of malaria

Vector control is one of the main methods to prevent and control malaria.

Malaria vector control interventions recommend for large-scale deployment are:

  1. ITNs that are prequalified by WHO, which in many settings continue to be long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs); and
  2. indoor residual spraying (IRS) with a product prequalified by WHO.

Once optimal overage with one of these interventions has been achieved, supplementary interventions may be considered for deployment depending on the specifics of the population, situation or setting. These include personal protection measures that have a primary use-pattern of protecting individual users, although they may have some as yet unproven impact when deployed at the community level.

For more detail see the WHO Guidelines for malaria here:
https://pacmossi.org/guidelines-for-malaria/

Situation reports

Dengue-like illnessMalaria

Overview of dengue in the Pacific

In 2022, and as of 1 May, 3,930 cases of dengue (DLI) have been reported. The majority of cases have been reported from Fiji.

Overview of malaria in the Pacific

In the Pacific, malaria is endemic in Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. The majority of cases are reported from Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. Vanuatu is targeting country-wide elimination.

Estimated malaria cases and deaths for 2020

Population denominator Cases Deaths
Papua New Guinea 8,947,027 8,947,027 2,962
Solomon Islands 663,122 663,122 161
Vanuatu 307,150 307,150 -

Relative case load for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax cases

Mosquito-borne disease outbreak news from the Region