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Implementation Guidance Residual Spraying Against Aedes Vectors in the Pacific Workshop Presentation Slides Implementation Guidance Residual Spraying Against Aedes Vectors in the Pacific Spray Operator Workshop Facilitator Guide Implementation Guidance Residual Spraying Against Aedes Vectors in the Pacific Spray Operator Field Guide Uncategorized Analysis of insecticides in long-lasting insecticidal nets using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and correlation with bioefficacy Journal article Climate variability and water-related infectious diseases in Pacific Island Countries and Territories, a systematic review Journal article Spatial predictive risk mapping of lymphatic filariasis residual hotspots in American Samoa using demographic and environmental factors Journal article Using GEOFIL to model mass drug administration and targeted surveillance and treatment strategies in American Samoa Uncategorized Epidemiologic Trends of Dengue in US Territories, 2010–2020 Journal article Modeling present and future climate risk of dengue outbreak, a case study in New Caledonia Uncategorized Dengue fever based on epidemiological situation: Current outbreak in Timor-Leste on January 2020 until February 2022 Guidelines Framework for national surveillance and control plans for Aedes vectors in the Pacific Journal article Effects of temperature, rainfall, and El Niño Southern Oscillations on dengue-like-illness incidence in Solomon Islands Uncategorized Population structure and invasion history of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southeast Asia and Australasia Uncategorized Epidemiology of dengue reported in the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region, 2013–2019: Dengue epidemiology in the WHO Western Pacific Region Journal article A guide to mosquitoes in the Pacific Journal article Seasonal assessment on the effects of time of night, temperature and humidity on the biting profile of Anopheles farauti in north Queensland, Australia using a population naive to malaria vector control pressures Journal article Prevalence of Barmah Forest Virus, Chikungunya Virus and Ross River Virus Antibodies among Papua New Guinea Military Personnel before 2019 Journal article Arboviral disease outbreaks, Aedes mosquitoes, and vector control efforts in the Pacific Journal article Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) seroprevalence in the South Pacific populations of the Cook Islands and Vanuatu with associated environmental and social factors Report Pacific Community (SPC). Epidemic and emerging disease alerts in the Pacific report 2021. Noumea, New Caledonia: Pacific Community, 2022. Report PacMOSSI Annual Report 2022 Report WHO World Malaria Report 2022 Journal article Coating formulation change leads to inferior performance of long-lasting insecticidal nets in Papua New Guinea Journal article Estimating the Distribution of Japanese Encephalitis Vectors in Australia Using Ecological Niche Modelling Journal article Stratification of malaria incidence in Papua New Guinea (2011–2019): Contribution towards a sub-national control policy Journal article Molecular detection and characterisation of the first Japanese encephalitis virus belonging to genotype IV acquired in Australia Journal article Retrospective seroepidemiological study of chikungunya infection in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific region Journal article Genetic Diversity and Phylogeny of Aedes aegypti, the Main Arbovirus Vector in the Pacific Journal article Strengthening Capacity in Disaster Waste Management in Vanuatu Journal article Japanese Encephalitis Virus Emergence in Australia: Public Health Importance and Implications for Future Surveillance Journal article Japanese Encephalitis Virus: The Emergence of Genotype IV in Australia and Its Potential Endemicity Journal article Japanese Encephalitis Emergence in Australia: The Potential Population at Risk Journal article Perspective on the Use of Innovative Surveillance Strategies Implemented for COVID-19 to Prevent Mosquito-Borne Disease Emergence in French Polynesia Journal article Insecticide resistance in malaria and arbovirus vectors in Papua New Guinea, 2017–2022 Journal article Spatially Explicit Environmental Factors Associated with Lymphatic Filariasis Infection in American Samoa Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Standard Operating Procedure for maintaining Anopheles farauti s.s. colony mosquitoes Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Standard Operating Procedure for maintaining Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus colony mosquitoes Journal article Evaluating Molecular Xenomonitoring as a Tool for Lymphatic Filariasis Surveillance in Samoa, 2018–2019 Journal article Modelling lymphatic filariasis elimination in American Samoa: GEOFIL predicts need for new targets and six rounds of mass drug administration Journal article Lymphatic filariasis in 2016 in American Samoa: Identifying clustering and hotspots using non-spatial and three spatial analytical methods Journal article Reconstructing long-term dengue virus immunity in French Polynesia. Journal article Assessment of fitness and vector competence of a New Caledonia wMel Aedes aegypti strain before field-release Journal article Vector composition, abundance, biting patterns and malaria transmission intensity in Madang, Papua New Guinea: assessment after 7 years of an LLIN-based malaria control programme Journal article Trash to Treasure: How Insect Protein and Waste Containers Can Improve the Environmental Footprint of Mosquito Egg Releases Journal article Mathematical modelling of the mosquito Aedes polynesiensis in a heterogeneous environment Journal article Pictorial keys for the identification of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) associated with Dengue Virus Transmission Journal article The mosquitoes of Polynesia with a pictorial key to some species associated with filariasis and/or dengue fever Journal article The extensive networks of frequent population mobility in the Samoan Islands and their implications for infectious disease transmission Journal article Lymphatic filariasis epidemiology in Samoa in 2018: Geographic clustering and higher antigen prevalence in older age groups Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Standard Operating Procedure for BG-Sentinel Assembly and Deployment Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Standard Operating Procedure for conducting larval and pupal surveys for Anopheles Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Standard Operating Procedure for performing Human Landing Catch (HLC) Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Standard Operating Procedure for conducting larval and pupal surveys for Aedes Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Standard Operating Procedure for assembly and deployment of ovitraps Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Standard Operating Procedures for collecting resting mosquitoes with the Prokopack aspirator Implementation Guidance Equipment for vector control. Specification guidelines. 2nd edition Journal article Seroprevalence of dengue, Zika, chikungunya and Ross River viruses across the Solomon Islands Journal article Methodological Diversity in Citizen Science Mosquito Surveillance: A Scoping Review Journal article Arboviral Disease Outbreaks in the Pacific Islands Countries and Areas, 2014 to 2020: A Systematic Literature and Document Review Journal article Human Behavior, Livelihood, and Malaria Transmission in Two Sites of Papua New Guinea Journal article Insecticide resistance status of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes in Papua New Guinea Journal article Comparison of Different Mosquito Traps for Zoonotic Arbovirus Vectors in Papua New Guinea Journal article Arbovirus Detection in Vectors Journal article Optimization of the feeding rate of Anopheles farauti s.s. colony mosquitoes in direct membrane feeding assays Journal article Outcomes from international field trials with Male Aedes Sound Traps: Frequency-dependent effectiveness in capturing target species in relation to bycatch abundance Journal article Effect of BG-Lures on the Male Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) Sound Trap Capture Rates Journal article Spatial population genomics of a recent mosquito invasion Journal article Coverage, determinants of use and repurposing of long-lasting insecticidal nets two years after a mass distribution in Lihir Islands, Papua New Guinea: a cross-sectional study Journal article Investigating differences in village-level heterogeneity of malaria infection and household risk factors in Papua New Guinea Journal article Magneto-optical diagnosis of symptomatic malaria in Papua New Guinea Journal article Getting to zero: micro-foci of malaria in the Solomon Islands requires stratified control Journal article Human Seroprevalence for Dengue, Ross River, and Barmah Forest viruses in Australia and the Pacific: A systematic review spanning seven decades Journal article Climate change and diseases: A focus on dengue fever and its surveillance system in Fiji Islands Journal article Dengue fever outbreak in Cook Island: A rising concern, efforts, challenges, and future recommendations Journal article Addressing hard-to-reach populations for achieving malaria elimination in the Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network countries Report World malaria report 2021 Journal article Residual Malaria Transmission in Select Countries of Asia-Pacific Region: Old Wine in a New Barrel Journal article Report of the 2018 annual meeting of the Asia Pacific Malaria Elimination Network Vector Control Working Group: harnessing skills and knowledge for malaria elimination across the Asia Pacific. Journal article Eliminating again, for the last time: A case study of donor support for malaria in Solomon Islands Implementation Guidance Continuous Long-lasting Insecticidal Net Distributions A Guide to Concepts and Planning Implementation Guidance Multisectoral approach for the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases Meeting resources List of attendees Meeting resources Finalised agenda Meeting resources Recording of the meeting Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Performing sweep net sampling of host-seeking mosquitoes Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) SOP for surveillance, processing and storage of mosquito vectors Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) CDC light traps Implementation Guidance Guidelines for laboratory and field-testing of long-lasting insecticidal nets Compendium of guidance Compendium of WHO malaria guidance - prevention, diagnosis, treatment, surveillance and elimintation Community engagement and risk communication WHO community engagement framework for quality, people-centred and resilient health services Community engagement and risk communication A WHO Guideline for Emergency Risk Communication (ERC) policy and practice Community engagement and risk communication A toolkit for behavioural and social communication in outbreak response Implementation Guidance Guidelines for laboratory and field testing of mosquito larvicides Implementation Guidance Guidelines for testing mosquito adulticides for indoor residual spraying and treatment of mosquito nets Implementation Guidance Preparing for certification of malaria elmination Implementation Guidance A framework for malaria elimination Implementation Guidance Global plan for insecticide resistance management in malaria vectors Implementation Guidance Prevention and management of insecticide resistance in vectors of public health importance Implementation Guidance Framework for a national plan for monitoring and management of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors Implementation Guidance Insecticide-treated nets for malaria transmission control in areas with insecticide-resistant mosquito populations Implementation Guidance Indoor residual spraying: An operational manual for IRS for malaria transmission, control and elimination Implementation Guidance Larval source management - a supplementary measure for malaria vector control Implementation Guidance Malaria surveillance, monitoring and evaluation: A reference manual Developing national strategic plans Manual for developing national malaria strategic plans Guidelines Guidelines for malaria Strategies and regulations Regional action framework for malaria control and elimination in the Western Pacific (2016-2020) Strategies and regulations Global technical strategy for malaria 2016-2030 Implementation Guidance Technical handbook for dengue surveillance, dengue outbreak prediction/detection and outbreak response Implementation Guidance Pacific Outbreak Manual, Pacific Public Health Surveillance Network (PPHSN) Implementation Guidance A toolkit for national dengue burden estimation Implementation Guidance Dengue Outbreak Toolbox Implementation Guidance Guidelines for quality control of pesticides Implementation Guidance Guidelines on management options for empty pesticide containers Implementation Guidance Guidelines for procuring public health pesticides Implementation Guidance Guidelines for drinking-water quality Implementation Guidance Managing pesticides in agriculture and public health: a compendium of FAO and WHO guidelines and other resources Implementation Guidance Test procedures for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vector mosquitoes Implementation Guidance Monitoring and managing insecticide resistance in Aedes mosquito population Implementation Guidance Space spray application of insecticides for vector and public health pest control: A practitioner's guide Implementation Guidance Vector control operations framework for Zika virus Implementation Guidance Entomological surveillance for Aedes spp, in the context of Zika virus Implementation Guidance Vector surveillance and control at ports, airports and ground crossings Implementation Guidance Manual for indoor residual spraying in urban areas for Aedes aegypti control Implementation Guidance Guidance framework for testing the sterile insect technique as a vector control tool against Aedes-borne diseases Implementation Guidance Manual for Surveillance and Control of Aedes Vectors in the Pacific Implementation Guidance WHO aircraft disinsection methods and procedures Guidelines Dengue guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control Strategies and regulations WHO Country Cooperation Strategy 2018-2022: Pacific Island Countries and Areas Strategies and regulations International Health Regulations Strategies and regulations Zika strategic response plan Strategies and regulations Western Pacific regional action plan for dengue prevention and control Strategies and regulations Global Vector Control Response Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Sweep Net Collections - Vegetation Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Pyrethrum Spray Catches Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Pot or Box Resting Site Collections Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Pit Shelter Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Human Baited Tent Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Furvela Tent Traps Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) BG-Gravid Aedes Trap Assembly and Deployment Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Barrier Screen Collections Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) Animal Baited Tent Implementation Guidance Global Strategy for Dengue Prevention and Control 2012-2020 World Health Organisation

Find out about mosquito borne diseases

Dengue

  • Dengue viruses are spread to people through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquitoes.
  • Global incidence of dengue has increased massively over the past 50yrs, with transmission spreading into new countries.
  • The Pacific Island Countries are all at risk of dengue outbreaks.
  • Dengue is caused by one of any of four related viruses: Dengue virus 1, 2, 3, and 4.
  • Dengue infection is usually asymptomatic and only about 1 in 4 infected people will get sick.
  • For people who get sick with dengue, the infection causes flu-like illness, and occasionally develops into potentially lethal complicated called severe dengue.
  • The virus may also transmitted from a mother to her unborn infant during pregnancy.
  • There is no specific treatment for dengue/severe dengue, but early detection access to proper medical care lowers fatality rates below 1%.

Transmission of dengue, chikungunya and Zika

An Aedes mosquito vector becomes infected when they ingest the dengue, chikungunya or Zika virus when taking a blood meal on an infected human.

The virus develops and multiplies in the infected mosquito and then when it takes another blood meal, it is able to pass the arbovirus to other humans.

For dengue, in particular, the transmission cycle is complicated by the fact that there are actually four different types of dengue virus. Infection with one serotype of virus provides immunity to that serotype for life, but does not provide long term immunity to other serotypes. In fact, if someone becomes infected with a different serotype this may put them at a higher risk of developing haemorrhagic dengue, a more serious from the disease.

Which mosquitoes species can transmit dengue, Zika and chikungunya in the Pacific:

Aedes aegypti

Aedes albopictus

Aedes polynesiensis

Vectors in the Pacific

The primary vector of dengue, Zika and chikungunya in the Pacific region is Aedes aegypti.

Aedes albopictus and Aedes polynesiensis are important secondary vectors.

There are also a number of other secondary vectors that are important within restricted geographic areas, or that contribute to the transmission of arboviruses once an outbreak has started.

  • Aedes cooki
  • Aedes hebrideus
  • Aedes hensilli
  • Aedes kesseli
  • Aedes marshallensis
  • Aedes pseudoscutellaris
  • Aedes rotumae
  • Aedes scutellaris
  • Aedes tongae

Prevention and control of Aedes-borne arboviruses

The main method to control or prevent the transmission of dengue virus is to combat vector mosquitoes through:

  • preventing mosquitoes from accessing egg-laying habitats by environmental management and modification;
  • disposing of solid waste properly and removing artificial man-made habitats;
  • covering, emptying, and cleaning of domestic water storage containers on a weekly basis;
  • applying appropriate insecticides to water storage outdoor containers;
  • using of personal household protection such as window screens, long-sleeved clothes, insecticide treated materials, coils and vaporizers;
  • improving community participation and mobilization for sustained vector control;
  • applying residual insecticides during outbreaks as one of the emergency vector-control measures, such as indoor residual spraying;
  • active monitoring and surveillance of vectors should be carried out to determine effectiveness of control interventions.

SOURCE: For guidance targeted to PICs to prevent and control arbovirus infections, see the Manual on Surveillance and Control of Aedes vectors in the Pacific

Situation reports

Overview of dengue in the Pacific

In 2022, and as of 1 May, 3,930 cases of dengue (DLI) have been reported. The majority of cases have been reported from Fiji.

Epidemic and emerging disease alerts in the Pacific as of 10 May 2022

Anopheles farauti s.s.
Aedes aegypti
Aedes albopictus
Aedes polynesiensis

Pacific Syndromic Surveillance System Dengue Like Illness (DLI)

Number of dengue like illness (DLI) cases reported

Country W17 Year Total American Samoa 0 0 Cook Islands 0 2 Fiji 154 3843 French Polynesia 0 0 Guam 0 0 Kiribati 0 2 Marshall Islands 0 0 Micronesia 0 11 Nauru 0 0 New Caledonia 0 11 New Zealand 0 0 Niue 0 0 Northern Mariana Islands 0 0 Palau 4 15 Papua New Guinea 0 0 Pitcairn Islands 0 0 Samoa 0 0 Solomon Islands 0 28 Tokelau 0 0 Tonga 0 0 Tuvalu 0 0 Vanuatu 4 6 Wallis & Futuna 0 12

Mosquito-borne disease outbreak news from the Region

Zika

  • Zika virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which primarily bite during the day.
  • The virus infection is usually asymptomatic, but can lead to severe complications.
  • Infection during pregnancy presents many serious hazards for mother and child (microcephaly in children).
  • The virus infection is usually asymptomatic, but can lead to severe complications.
  • Zika virus is a trigger of Guillain-Barre syndrome.
  • The virus may also transmitted from a mother to her unborn infant, through sexual contact and blood transfusions.
  • The transmission of Zika virus has been recorded from at least 20 Pacific Island Countries. The first major outbreak in the Region occurred on Yap Island in the Federated States of Micronesia in 2007. This was followed by a large outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013-14 which was associated with a rise in Guillain-Barre syndrome cases.
  • There is currently no vaccine to prevent or medicine to treat Zika virus infection.

Transmission of dengue, chikungunya and Zika

An Aedes mosquito vector becomes infected when they ingest the dengue, chikungunya or Zika virus when taking a blood meal on an infected human.

The virus develops and multiplies in the infected mosquito and then when it takes another blood meal, it is able to pass the arbovirus to other humans.

For dengue, in particular, the transmission cycle is complicated by the fact that there are actually four different types of dengue virus. Infection with one serotype of virus provides immunity to that serotype for life, but does not provide long term immunity to other serotypes. In fact, if someone becomes infected with a different serotype this may put them at a higher risk of developing haemorrhagic dengue, a more serious from the disease.

Which mosquitoes species can transmit dengue, Zika and chikungunya in the Pacific:

Aedes aegypti

Aedes albopictus

Aedes polynesiensis

Vectors in the Pacific

The primary vector of dengue, Zika and chikungunya in the Pacific region is Aedes aegypti.

Aedes albopictus and Aedes polynesiensis are important secondary vectors.

There are also a number of other secondary vectors that are important within restricted geographic areas, or that contribute to the transmission of arboviruses once an outbreak has started.

  • Aedes cooki
  • Aedes hebrideus
  • Aedes hensilli
  • Aedes kesseli
  • Aedes marshallensis
  • Aedes pseudoscutellaris
  • Aedes rotumae
  • Aedes scutellaris
  • Aedes tongae

Prevention and control of Aedes-borne arboviruses

The main method to control or prevent the transmission of dengue virus is to combat vector mosquitoes through:

  • preventing mosquitoes from accessing egg-laying habitats by environmental management and modification;
  • disposing of solid waste properly and removing artificial man-made habitats;
  • covering, emptying, and cleaning of domestic water storage containers on a weekly basis;
  • applying appropriate insecticides to water storage outdoor containers;
  • using of personal household protection such as window screens, long-sleeved clothes, insecticide treated materials, coils and vaporizers;
  • improving community participation and mobilization for sustained vector control;
  • applying residual insecticides during outbreaks as one of the emergency vector-control measures, such as indoor residual spraying;
  • active monitoring and surveillance of vectors should be carried out to determine effectiveness of control interventions.

SOURCE: For guidance targeted to PICs to prevent and control arbovirus infections, see the Manual on Surveillance and Control of Aedes vectors in the Pacific

Situation reports

Overview of dengue in the Pacific

In 2022, and as of 1 May, 3,930 cases of dengue (DLI) have been reported. The majority of cases have been reported from Fiji.

Epidemic and emerging disease alerts in the Pacific as of 10 May 2022

Anopheles farauti s.s.
Aedes aegypti
Aedes albopictus
Aedes polynesiensis

Pacific Syndromic Surveillance System Dengue Like Illness (DLI)

Number of dengue like illness (DLI) cases reported

Country W17 Year Total American Samoa 0 0 Cook Islands 0 2 Fiji 154 3843 French Polynesia 0 0 Guam 0 0 Kiribati 0 2 Marshall Islands 0 0 Micronesia 0 11 Nauru 0 0 New Caledonia 0 11 New Zealand 0 0 Niue 0 0 Northern Mariana Islands 0 0 Palau 4 15 Papua New Guinea 0 0 Pitcairn Islands 0 0 Samoa 0 0 Solomon Islands 0 28 Tokelau 0 0 Tonga 0 0 Tuvalu 0 0 Vanuatu 4 6 Wallis & Futuna 0 12

Mosquito-borne disease outbreak news from the Region

Chikungunya

  • Chikungunya is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which primarily bite during the day.
  • Chikungunya causes an acute febrile illness. The most common symptoms of infection are fever and joint pain.
  • Chikungunya is often misdiagnosed with dengue and other diseases.
  • Chikungunya virus infection seems to elicit long-lasting protective immunity.
  • The virus may also transmitted from a mother to her unborn infant, through sexual contact and blood transfusions.
  • There is currently no vaccine to prevent or medicine to treat chikungunya virus infection.
  • Chikungunya was largely absent from the Pacific Island Countries until an outbreak in New Caledonia in 2011. Chikungunya outbreaks or cases have since been reported from at least 9 Pacific Island Countries.

Transmission of dengue, chikungunya and Zika

An Aedes mosquito vector becomes infected when they ingest the dengue, chikungunya or Zika virus when taking a blood meal on an infected human.

The virus develops and multiplies in the infected mosquito and then when it takes another blood meal, it is able to pass the arbovirus to other humans.

For dengue, in particular, the transmission cycle is complicated by the fact that there are actually four different types of dengue virus. Infection with one serotype of virus provides immunity to that serotype for life, but does not provide long term immunity to other serotypes. In fact, if someone becomes infected with a different serotype this may put them at a higher risk of developing haemorrhagic dengue, a more serious from the disease.

Which mosquitoes species can transmit dengue, Zika and chikungunya in the Pacific:

Aedes aegypti

Aedes albopictus

Aedes polynesiensis

Vectors in the Pacific

The primary vector of dengue, Zika and chikungunya in the Pacific region is Aedes aegypti.

Aedes albopictus and Aedes polynesiensis are important secondary vectors.

There are also a number of other secondary vectors that are important within restricted geographic areas, or that contribute to the transmission of arboviruses once an outbreak has started.

  • Aedes cooki
  • Aedes hebrideus
  • Aedes hensilli
  • Aedes kesseli
  • Aedes marshallensis
  • Aedes pseudoscutellaris
  • Aedes rotumae
  • Aedes scutellaris
  • Aedes tongae

Prevention and control of Aedes-borne arboviruses

The main method to control or prevent the transmission of dengue virus is to combat vector mosquitoes through:

  • preventing mosquitoes from accessing egg-laying habitats by environmental management and modification;
  • disposing of solid waste properly and removing artificial man-made habitats;
  • covering, emptying, and cleaning of domestic water storage containers on a weekly basis;
  • applying appropriate insecticides to water storage outdoor containers;
  • using of personal household protection such as window screens, long-sleeved clothes, insecticide treated materials, coils and vaporizers;
  • improving community participation and mobilization for sustained vector control;
  • applying residual insecticides during outbreaks as one of the emergency vector-control measures, such as indoor residual spraying;
  • active monitoring and surveillance of vectors should be carried out to determine effectiveness of control interventions.

SOURCE: For guidance targeted to PICs to prevent and control arbovirus infections, see the Manual on Surveillance and Control of Aedes vectors in the Pacific

Situation reports

Overview of dengue in the Pacific

In 2022, and as of 1 May, 3,930 cases of dengue (DLI) have been reported. The majority of cases have been reported from Fiji.

Epidemic and emerging disease alerts in the Pacific as of 10 May 2022

Anopheles farauti s.s.
Aedes aegypti
Aedes albopictus
Aedes polynesiensis

Pacific Syndromic Surveillance System Dengue Like Illness (DLI)

Number of dengue like illness (DLI) cases reported

Country W17 Year Total American Samoa 0 0 Cook Islands 0 2 Fiji 154 3843 French Polynesia 0 0 Guam 0 0 Kiribati 0 2 Marshall Islands 0 0 Micronesia 0 11 Nauru 0 0 New Caledonia 0 11 New Zealand 0 0 Niue 0 0 Northern Mariana Islands 0 0 Palau 4 15 Papua New Guinea 0 0 Pitcairn Islands 0 0 Samoa 0 0 Solomon Islands 0 28 Tokelau 0 0 Tonga 0 0 Tuvalu 0 0 Vanuatu 4 6 Wallis & Futuna 0 12

Mosquito-borne disease outbreak news from the Region

Malaria

  • Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite. Four kinds of malaria parasites infect humans: Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae.
  • People with malaria often experience fever, chills, and flu-like illness. Left untreated, they may develop severe complications and die.
  • In the Pacific, malaria is endemic in Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu.
  • Malaria incidence has nearly doubled in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands since 2015.
  • Vanuatu is targeting country-wide elimination.
  • Children under 5 years old are the most vulnerable group.
  • Although malaria can be a deadly disease, illness and death from malaria can usually be prevented.
  • Malaria may also be transmitted from a mother to her unborn infant before or during delivery or through blood transmission.
  • Several good antimalarial drugs are available and should be taken early on.

Transmission of malaria

The transmission of human malaria involves cyclical infections of humans and mosquitoes.

Anopheles species becomes infected when taking a blood meal on an infected human.

The pathogen develops in the mosquito and then the infected mosquito can go on to transmit malaria to other humans with each blood meal it takes.

Malaria parasites develop through many different forms inside both the mosquito and human hosts.

Which mosquitoes species can transmit dengue, Zika and chikungunya in the Pacific:

Primary vectors

  • Anopheles farauti s.s
  • Anopheles koliensis s.l.
  • Anopheles punctulatus

Secondary vectors

  • Anopheles bancroftii s.l
  • Anopheles hinescorum
  • Anopheles oreios
  • Anopheles farauti 4
  • Anopheles farauti 8
  • Anopheles longirostris s.l.
  • Anopheles karwari

Oriental introductions

  • An. barbirostris
  • An. indefinitus
  • An. subpictus
  • An. vagus
  • An. litoralis
  • An. campestris

In the Southwest Pacific, Anopheles mosquitoes are naturally found in the Moluccas, the islands of New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. Over 40 species of Anopheles are found in the region, and many of these can transmit malaria.

Prevention & control of malaria

Vector control is one of the main methods to prevent and control malaria.

Malaria vector control interventions recommend for large-scale deployment are:

  1. ITNs that are prequalified by WHO, which in many settings continue to be long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs); and
  2. indoor residual spraying (IRS) with a product prequalified by WHO.

Once optimal overage with one of these interventions has been achieved, supplementary interventions may be considered for deployment depending on the specifics of the population, situation or setting. These include personal protection measures that have a primary use-pattern of protecting individual users, although they may have some as yet unproven impact when deployed at the community level.

For more detail see the WHO Guidelines for malaria here: https://pacmossi.org/guidelines-for-malaria/

Situation reports

Dengue-like illnessMalaria

Overview of dengue in the Pacific

In 2022, and as of 1 May, 3,930 cases of dengue (DLI) have been reported. The majority of cases have been reported from Fiji.

Overview of malaria in the Pacific

In the Pacific, malaria is endemic in Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. The majority of cases are reported from Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. Vanuatu is targeting country-wide elimination.

Estimated malaria cases and deaths for 2020

Population denominator Cases Deaths Papua New Guinea 8,947,027 8,947,027 2,962 Solomon Islands 663,122 663,122 161 Vanuatu 307,150 307,150 -

Relative case load for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax cases

Mosquito-borne disease outbreak news from the Region